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Ashkenazim and Sephardim: A European Perspective

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Andrzej Katny, Izabela Olszewska and Aleksandra Twardowska

This volume is devoted to selected aspects of the culture and language of the two largest Jewish Diaspora groups, Sephardim and Ashkenazim. The authors analyze the latest European research tendencies related to both Jewish factions. Questions concern the historical, social and cultural contact with non-Jewish environment, the problems of Jewish identity, the condition of languages in both groups (Yiddish, Judeo-Spanish, Hakitía), and Jewish anthroponymy. The reflections concern various areas of contemporary Germany, Poland, Russia, the Balkan countries, Italy, the countries of North Africa inhabited by both Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews. For the analyses, not only documents, manuscripts, press articles, and literary texts serve as a basis but also the artifacts of material culture.

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Rafael Arnold: Postumer Kulturkontakt – Aschkenasische und sephardische Sepulkraltraditionen auf dem Jüdischen Friedhof in Venedig

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Postumer Kulturkontakt – Aschkenasische und sephardische Sepulkraltraditionen auf dem Jüdischen Friedhof in Venedig Rafael Arnold Universität Rostock Posthumous cultural encounter – Ashkenazic and Sephardic sepulchral traditions in the Jewish Cemetery of Venice. – Since the late 16th century, two distinct sepulchral traditions have emerged on the Jewish Cemetery on the Lido of Venice. The tombstones (hebr. mazzevot) of the Ashkenazi Jews are erected on the top of the graves in an upright position, whereas Sephardic resting places are usually covered with horizontally lying grave slabs. The coexistence of these two traditions is due to the historical and political situation which forced Sephardic, Ashkenazi and Italian Jews to retreat into the Venetian Ghetto, founded in 1516. – Various last wills of Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews found in the Archivio di Stato di Venezia reveal detailed dispositions regarding the form and conception of funeral places, that will be examined in this article. The Hebrew Cemetery on the island of Lido belongs undeniably to the most important Jewish sites of cultural contact between Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews. The awareness of cultural identity expressed in the testaments contributed cultural signifi- cance to this ensemble, which not only merits our specific recognition and protection but ac- tually requires. Keywords: Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews, Venice, Sepulchral Tradition, Last Wills, Lan- guages in Contact, Sephardic and Ashkenazic Identity, Cultural Encounters 0. Einleitung Wenn zu Pessach die Haggada gelesen wird, will es die Tradition, dass das jüngste der Kinder die „Vier Fragen“ stellt, die sich auf verschiedene Aspekte des...

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