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Heterodox Economics 2

Alternative Analysis to the Mainstream "Blackboard Economics</I> Based on the Concept of "Creative Mental Labor</I>

Hasan Gürak

Heterodox Economics 2 consists of articles which are complementary to the subjects presented in the book titled Heterodox Economics, published in 2012. The aim is to present alternative economic approaches based on the concept of Creative Mental Labor that are intended to make a contribution to the emergence of a new economics. The analysis throughout the book is based upon the principle that the original source of all the value added to products (considering nature as a given), is the mental and physical inputs of labor that continuously create new technologies while at the same time making use of the available technologies.


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This book, Heterodox Economics-2, consists of eight articles, which are ‘com- plementary’ to the subjects presented in the book titled Heterodox Economics published in April 2012 by Peter Lang International, Germany and each section, though independent, is related to the others in presenting an unorthodox and al- ternative approach to mainstream doctrines in economics. The distinguishing feature of all sections is the concept of the laborer’s “Creative Mental Labor” which, more or less, has the same significance as the Marxist concept of “labor- power”. The reason for this is the consideration that the laborer’s “creative mental labor” is the source of all technological innovation which is the source of “long-term” economic growth. Two other important and related concepts frequently referred to are “tech- nology-producing labor” and “technology-using labor” for which we will use the shorter term “laborer”. These articles present alternative views but do not make any claim to have found or to reveal the “absolute truth” in economics. There are, in fact, no ul- timate or absolute truths in any science. Therefore, some criticism of the views presented is unavoidable, in fact, it is necessary for any further ideological de- velopment. Obviously, there will be some criticism of the views presented by the sup- porters of mainstream economics. Hopefully the reader, regardless of her/his ideological commitment will read and evaluate the book with an open-mind and with the same degree of tolerance and indulgence that they would afford to the orthodox or mainstream theories. I would welcome and appreciate...

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