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The Reconfiguration of a Latecomer Innovation System

Governing Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Innovation in South Korea

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Dirk Johann

The book examines the evolving governance of pharmaceutical biotechnology in South Korea in order to derive conclusions about the dynamics of a latecomer system transition. Based on an analysis of innovation activities in the biomedical sector, which is complemented by expert interviews, the research contends that the Korean post-developmental state should be geared towards coordinating the interplay of technologies, modes of organization and institutions. An integrative framework is developed to describe system change as a co-evolutionary process in which the national and sectoral dimensions intersect. The case shows that the shaping of an environment in which innovation systems can develop sectoral transformative capacity is a central aspect of latecomer innovation governance.

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Annex 1 - OECD definition of biotechnology patents

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Category IPC codes Title Human A01H 1/00 Processes for modifying genotypes necessities A01H4/00 Plant reproduction by tissue culture techniques A61K 38/00 Medicinal preparations containing peptides A61K 39/00 Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies A61K 48/00 Medicinal preparations containing genetic material which is inserted into cells o f the living body to treat genetic diseases; gene therapy Chemistry C02F 3/34 Biological treatment o f water, waste water, or sewage: characterised by the micro-organisms used C07G 11/00 Compounds o f unknown constitution: antibiotics C07G 13/00 Compounds o f unknown constitution: vitamins C07G 15/00 Compounds o f unknown constitution: hormones C07K 4/00 Peptides having up to 20 amino acids in an undefined or only partially defined sequence; derivatives thereof C07K 14/00 Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; gastrins; somatostatins; melanotropins; derivatives thereof C07K 16/00 Immunoglobulins, e.g. monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies C07K 17/00 Carrier-bound or immobilised peptides; preparation thereof C07K 19/00 Hybrid peptides Chemistry C12M Apparatus for enzymology or microbiology (microbiology) C12N Micro-organisms or enzymes; compositions thereof C12P Fermentation or enzyme-using processes to synthesise a desired chemical compound or composition or to separate optical isomers from a racemic mixture C12Q Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes or micro-organisms; compositions ortestpapers therefore; processes ofpreparing such compositions; condition-responsive control in microbiological or enzymological processes C12S Processes using enzymes or micro-organisms to liberate, separate or purify a pre-existing compound or composition processes using enzymes or micro-organisms to treat textiles or to clean solid surfaces ofmaterials A n n e x 3 0 1 Source: OECD (2005)...

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