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State Constitutions and Governments without Essence in Post-Independence Africa

Governance along a Failure-Success Continuum with Illustrations from Benin, Cameroon and the DRC

Joy Alemazung

This book in a diagnostic approach looks at the problems plaguing Africa, a continent rich in human and natural resources yet the poorest in the world. The main question is: what is the purpose of government in Africa? As illustrated by different empirical examples, the study argues that the creation of states and governments after colonialism was a «false start» and was not impacted by the social contract principle of men forming government to preserve the common good. The result is a leadership culture of government against the people with weak institutions in favour of strong autocratic rulers. The core of this study is a solution seeking approach with alternative political forms.

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Appendices

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Appendix A: Selected country results for the cost of conflict in Africa Conflict cost as much as SSA countries receive for aid Country Conflict years Number of years Projected growth* Actual growth* Loss as % of GDP** GDP loss ($bn) Burundi 1993–2005 13 5.5% -1.1% 37% 5.7 Rwanda 1990–2001 12 4.5% 2.8% 32% 8.4 DRC 1996–2005 10 5.4% 0.10% 29% 18 Eritrea 1998-2000 3 4.8% -3.8% 11% 0.28 Republic of Congo 1997–99 3 3.3% 0.03% 7.1% 0.70 South Africa 1990-96 7 1.2% 1.2% 2.7% 22 Source: IANSA, Oxfam, and Saferworld (October 2007): Africa’s missing billions International arms flows and the cost of conflict. Appendix B: Freedom in Sub-Sahara Africa “free”, “partly free” and “not free” countries Year Number/Percentage of Free Countries Number/Percentage of Partly free Countries Number/Percentage of Not free Countries 1977 3 7 % 16 36 % 25 57 % 2007 11 23 % 22 46 % 15 31 % From Freedom House rating between 1997 and 2007 the number of countries recording an in- crease in “freedom” increased in Africa as indicated on this table. One noticed an increase in the number of countries rated as “free” and “partly” and a corresponding decrease in the countries rated as “not free”. Source: Freedom House 2007: Freedom in Sub-Sahara Africa 230 Appendices Appendix B: Freedom in Sub-Sahara Africa “free”, “partly free” and “not free” countries Country Political Rights Civil Liberties Status Cape Verde 1 1 Free Ghana 1 2 Free Mauritius 1 2 Free Benin 2...

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