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Concepts of a Culturally Guided Philosophy of Science

Contributions from Philosophy, Medicine and Science of Psychotherapy

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Edited By Fengli Lan, Friedrich G. Wallner and Andreas Schulz

From the beginning, Constructive Realism has been a culturally orientated philosophy of science by the introduction of the concept of lifeworld. This book brings together contributions from the field of philosophy, Chinese medicine and the science of psychotherapy. The authors discuss the relation of Constructive Realism and culture or rather the concept of science under the aspect of cultural dependency. Since the beginning of the new century the manifold research on Chinese Medicine offered concrete examples for a cultural dependency of science. Thereby, the book shows the rare or even unique situation that philosophy became concrete.

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José A. López Cerezo & José Luis Luján: A Philosophical Approach to the Nature of Risk

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161 José A. López Cerezo & José Luis Luján A Philosophical Approach to the Nature of Risk� Few subjects have experienced an academic and social boom as striking as risk studies since the 60s. The lack of unanimity in relation to a unidimensional measure or a general theory, has also made risk studies a fashionable academic field ready for controversy (particularly in science and technology studies). Philosophical analysis also has addressed issues related to risk, mainly ethical and political issues (MacLean, 1986; Shrader-Frechette, 1994; Sunstein, 2002; Lewens, 2007; Luján and López Cerezo, 2012) and also methodological contro- versies in risk assessment (Shrader-Frechette, 1985; Cranor 1992; Luján, 2005; Douglas, 2009; Elliott, 2011). The nature of risk, however, is not present to a great extent in contemporary philosophy. For, with a few exceptions such as N. Rescher, K. Shrader-Frechette, or S. Hansson, this subject has not aroused much interest or debate among professional philosophers.1 In spite of the valuable contribution to the field which could in principle stem from philosophy,2 there are certain shortcomings in the conceptual analysis of risk and scarcely any theoretical reflection about the ontological or epistemo- logical assumptions underlying risk studies. A tentative and preliminary explora- � The research presented in this paper has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Sci- ence and Innovation’s research projects La explicación basada en mecanismos en la evaluación de riesgos (FFI2010-20227/FISO) and Políticas de la cultura científica (FFI2011-24582/FISO). Partial funding of them was...

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