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Identities and Modernizations

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Edited By Tadeusz Buksinski

This book presents insights and understandings on the issue of identities and modernizations, contributed mainly by theoreticians from China and scholars from Central and Eastern European countries. Both regions have followed a similar path towards modernization until the second half of the twentieth century. The past experience in both regions leads to two crucial, yet paradoxical conclusions: Firstly, no modernization of economy, technology or science is possible without a prior modernization of the collective identity, i.e. of culture, tradition, religion and spirituality in general. Secondly, effective and long-term modernization cannot be achieved with disregard for tradition, culture, religion and spirituality. The theory of dispersed modernity is promoted.

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Part II Chinese Modernity

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Wang Xingfu, Fudan University, Shanghai The Complicated Modernity and Reconstruction of Chinese ational Identity ∗ Abstract: There are three levels in rethinking national identity. In the normative level, we must publicly declare freedom, human rights, and democracy as universal values of political reform, and China wants to be a positive partner of a modern political civilization, rather than to be a provocateur of it. In a sense, China needs to take constitutional democracy as a goal of political reform. At the level of institution, we must find the proper forms of implementing the basic principles of constitution democracy in a new situation. CCP always emphasizes the party’s progressive nature, for me, the progressive nature must rely on transformation from authoritarian politics to democratic politics. In concrete practice, CCP shall explore a new concrete experience that according with the ideal of good governance. Lastly, if the concep- tion of socialism is meaningful, it shall explore an alternative society that is different from Russian socialism and neoliberalism. The core values of socialism are equality and solidarity. The realization of socialism depends on the most possible equalitarian distribution of wealth and income; meanwhile, it also relies on social solidarity in a social arrangement. According to Esping-Anderson’s welfare state typology, de-commodification and universalism are the basic principles of a Social Democratic welfare state. The ideal Social-Democratic welfare state is founded on the universal principle of granting access to benefits and service based on citizenship, limiting the reliance of family and market. This type of welfare...

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