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Identities and Modernizations

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Edited By Tadeusz Buksinski

This book presents insights and understandings on the issue of identities and modernizations, contributed mainly by theoreticians from China and scholars from Central and Eastern European countries. Both regions have followed a similar path towards modernization until the second half of the twentieth century. The past experience in both regions leads to two crucial, yet paradoxical conclusions: Firstly, no modernization of economy, technology or science is possible without a prior modernization of the collective identity, i.e. of culture, tradition, religion and spirituality in general. Secondly, effective and long-term modernization cannot be achieved with disregard for tradition, culture, religion and spirituality. The theory of dispersed modernity is promoted.

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Part III Universalism of Modernization Patterns and Particularism of Identities

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Georg Lohmann, University of Magdeburg, Magdeburg Universal Human Rights and Particular Cultural Identities Abstract: The international human rights regime and the the universalism of human rights faces relativistic objections. In the paper, I will defend the universal claim of Human Rights against culture-relativistic and particularistic objections. I will base my moral substantiation of the universal claim of Human Rights upon a conception of a weak relativistic morality of equal respect and consideration. This starts, first, with a textual premise, which is culture- relative: the cultural esteem of the ability of individual, deliberate self-determination. Second, it relies upon the transcendent effect of the formal principle of impartial judgment, as a principle that generates moral universalism. Due to the fact that today we have no impartially acceptable reasons to treat human beings different with regard to their claim of being bearers of Human Rights, it follows an obligation for everyone to acknowledge every human being as having equal rights in the respective regards. In the end I discuss the tensions between Legal Universalism of Human Rights and cultural relativizations. Keywords: human rights, universalism, particularism, absolutism, cultural relativism 1. Introduction: three relativistic objections against the universalism of human rights Before coming to my actual topic, I would like to remind you of the most im- portant determinations of Human Rights. Human Rights are complex rights; on the one hand, they have a moral dimension and are, in so far, “moral rights”, on the other hand, they have to be understood as legal basic...

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