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Self-based Anaphora in Early Modern English


Ewa Kucelman

This book is a corpus-based study which aims to describe the class of self-pronouns as used in the Early Modern English period. Self-pronouns are presented as a multi-functional class, with two main functions, as emphatic forms and as reflexive markers. The emphatic function is seen as a continuation of an earlier state of affairs, whereas the reflexive function is described as a new, emerging one. As reflexive markers, self-pronouns in Early Modern English compete with personal pronouns. Therefore the book seeks to present the conditions of their distribution ranging from configurational and thematic through discursive to pragmatic factors involved in the choice of the reflexive strategy.


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Chapter 4: Bound reflexive pronouns in Early Modern English


Chapter 4 Bound reflexive pronouns in Early Modern English 4.1 Introduction This investigation covers a period of 140 years, the beginning of the Early Modern English period (1500-1640) with special emphasis on the language of William Shakespeare. The search was carried out using a word processor, looking for all attested spelling forms of SELF. As for the simple strategy (bound personal pronouns), we searched through the verbs listed in Peitsara (1997:359f) as those used reflexively in the EModE1 and EModE2 subperiods, and through other verbs found with the SELF strategy in the Shakespearian subpart of the corpus. The data collected in this way were subsequently subjected to detailed classification and analysis. This chapter deals with the description of SELF pronouns in bound positions in the sentence. In terms of the Binding Theory (BT) described in Chapter 1, it is assumed for contemporary English that a SELF anaphor, like all anaphors, will obey the binding Condition A. It is further assumed that the appearance of a personal pronoun (the simple pronoun) in a bound context violates the binding Condition B. In the sixteenth century English such an either-or interpretation of the distribution of SELF versus simple pronouns as predicted by the binding conditions is impossible due to the fact that, as shown in Chapter 3, the SELF pronoun was not the sole reflexive marker available. Although, as Peitsara (1997) states, in the Early Modern English period the SELF strategy is to be understood as the primary reflexive strategy and the...

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