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Institutional and Livelihood Changes in East African Forest Landscapes

Decentralization and Institutional Change for Sustainable Forest Management in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia

Edited By Franz Gatzweiler

This book presents research articles and essays which analyze the consequences of decentralization on forest conditions and livelihoods in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia. Authors from the East African collaborative research centers of the International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) Research Program demonstrate that the institutional changes resulting from decentralization create costs for those who need to re-institutionalize and re-organize the management of forest and land resources. This requires investment into information, communication, education and into the re-building of social capital. Cases in which collective action has worked and contributed to improving livelihoods and forest conditions can be exemplary, while failures can be equally useful for learning about East Africa and beyond.

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Chapter 1 Forest Governance Reforms in Eastern Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Institutional, Livelihood and Forest Sustainability Outcomes: Abwoli Y. Banana, Paul. O. Ongugo, William S. Gombya-Ssembajjwe, Tadesse W. Gole, Feyera Senbeta, Justine Namaalwa, Emmanuel Luoga, Joseph Bahati, L. A. Mbwambo, Valerie Graw, Franz W. Gatzweiler

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17 Chapter 1 Forest Governance Reforms in Eastern Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Institutional, Livelihood and Forest Sustainability Outcomes Abwoli Y. Banana, Paul. O. Ongugo, William S. Gombya-Ssembajjwe, Tadesse W. Gole, Feyera Senbeta, Justine Namaalwa, Emmanuel Luoga, Joseph Bahati, L. A. Mbwambo, Valerie Graw, Franz W. Gatzweiler 1.1 Abstract As forests continue to decline globally and more so in the East African region, decentralization reforms that aim to improve rural livelihoods and conserve for- ests by transferring management powers to local communities and governments have emerged in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Unlike Tanzania, where decentralization reforms have been implemented for over a decade, the reforms in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are still in their infancy. As a result, there is still little empirical understanding of the impact on livelihoods, governance and forest conditions. Limited studies carried out in the region indicate that decentralization of the forest sector in the region has taken many different forms; from partial devolution of management responsibility to more profound devolution of owner- ship to communities. Similarly, the outcomes from these reform efforts also vary within and between countries. Livelihood outcomes are limited in areas where Collaborative Forest Management (CFM), Joint Forest Management (JFM) and Participatory Forest Management (PFM) are practiced; and positive where more community involvement in forest management was practiced, like in Community Based Forest Management (CBFM). The outcomes of forest conditions under CFM, JFM and PFM are also mixed within and across the countries. Some forests have shown improvements while others continue...

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