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Institutional and Livelihood Changes in East African Forest Landscapes

Decentralization and Institutional Change for Sustainable Forest Management in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia

Edited By Franz Gatzweiler

This book presents research articles and essays which analyze the consequences of decentralization on forest conditions and livelihoods in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia. Authors from the East African collaborative research centers of the International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) Research Program demonstrate that the institutional changes resulting from decentralization create costs for those who need to re-institutionalize and re-organize the management of forest and land resources. This requires investment into information, communication, education and into the re-building of social capital. Cases in which collective action has worked and contributed to improving livelihoods and forest conditions can be exemplary, while failures can be equally useful for learning about East Africa and beyond.

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Chapter 14 Linking Mount Kilimanjaro Forest Resourcesto Institutional, Socio-Political and Physical Factors: A Cross-Border Comparative Analysis: Emmanuel Luoga, Paul Ongugo, George Kajembe, D.S.A. Silayo,and Njabha Lyantura

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253 Chapter 14 Linking Mount Kilimanjaro Forest Resources to Institutional, Socio-Political and Physical Factors: A Cross-Border Comparative Analysis Emmanuel Luoga, Paul Ongugo, George Kajembe, D.S.A. Silayo, and Njabha Lyantura 14.1 Abstract There is a key shift on forest governance in East Africa in which participatory models are being introduced to lessen the governments’ monopoly over man- agement of forests. This study explores the extent to which the macro constitu- tional level (policy formulation, governance, adjudication and constitutional decision making) affects the operational incentives and outcomes towards achieving this goal. Two forest reserves of Loitokitok in Kenya and Kikelelwa in Tanzania were studied and the results showed that recent and current levels of anthropogenic activities appear to override the natural replenishment rate of the ecosystem particularly in one forest. We found that the differences in the organi- zational performance of the two forests stem mostly from the historical and insti- tutional differences of the two countries. Recommendations are made towards sustainable management of both forests. 14.2 Introduction Kenya and Tanzania share a common and related history dating back to the pre- colonial era until the late 1960s when each country embarked on a different course of development. Kenya attempted to improve rural livelihood through individual profit incentives (capitalistic market economy) and Tanzania opted for organising collective work and settling people in collectivized villages (socialis- tic economy) (Migot-Adhola, 1979; Barkan, 1979; Sunderlin et al., 2005; Bryce- son, 2010). These countries also share various natural resources, one of which is the Mount Kilimanjaro...

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