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«… the ball seemed to keep rolling …»

Linking up Cognitive Systems in Language: Attention and Force Dynamics

Martina Lampert and Günther Lampert

Again firmly rooted in Leonard Talmy’s Cognitive Semantics, this new study moves beyond the analysis of single schematic systems in language contributing to the linguistic task of conceptual integration. It investigates for the first time effects of linking up Force Dynamics, a conceptual category generalizing over the traditional notion of the causative, and the Attention system of language, as detailed in Talmy’s most recent extended draft version. To accommodate the conceptual and formal complexities involved at the interface of Attention, Force Dynamics, and Cognitive State and to allow for an appropriate degree of fine-grainedness the analytical framework affords, the exposition has been constrained to the golf scenario, where forces are at work in the physical and sociodynamic domains.

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1 Integrating Schematic Systems 1 PART I: THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS 2 Language as an Entrée to the Mind: From Cognition to Language 11 2.1 The Overlapping Systems Model of Cognitive Organization 12 2.2 The Architecture of the Language System: Interacting and Integrating Systems 17 3 Attention in Cognition and in Language 23 3.1. From Attention and Language to Attention in Language 24 3.2 The State of the Art: The Attention System of Language 33 4 Force Interactions in Language 44 4.1 The Schematic System of Force Dynamics 46 4.2 The Modal System: Mapping Force-Dynamic Patterns Across Domains 65 4.3 Negation, Blocking, Pushing, and the Comparison Frame 71 4.4 Activation as Force: The Semantics of Seem 77 PART II: THE ATTENTION SYSTEM AT WORK 5 Attention Effects in Individual Morphemes 85 5.1 Causative Open-Class Simplex Free Morpheme Putt 86 5.1.1 Subdomain Aa: Symbolic Properties of the Morpheme 89 5.1.2 Subdomain Ab: Formal Properties of the Morpheme 95 5.1.3 Subdomain Ac: Componential Properties of the Morpheme 100 5.1.4 Subdomain Ad: Frame Properties of the Morpheme 106 5.1.5 Subdomain Ae: Polysemic Properties of the Morpheme 131 5.1.6 Subdomain Af: Phonological Properties of the Morpheme 131 5.1.7 Subdomain Ag: Field Properties of the Morpheme 134 CONTENTS vi 5.2 Causative Closed-Class Bound Morpheme {-ize} 159 5.2.1 Attentional Properties of an Individual Morpheme: {-ize} 163 5.2.2 Attentional Properties of a Morpheme Combination: Penalize 176 5.3 The Complex Morpheme Finally: Expectation and Delayed Onset Causation 182 6 Cross-Venue Comparisons of Force-Dynamically Specified Morphemes 195 6.1 Competition in...

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