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The Land Between

A History of Slovenia

Edited By Oto Luthar

This is a history of a space – a space between the Panonian plain in the East and the most northernmost bay in the Adriatic in the West, from the eastern Alps in the North and the Dinaridic mountain area in the South. It is also a history of all the different people who lived in this area. The authors show that the Slavs did not settle an empty space and simply replace the Celto-Roman inhabitants of earlier times; they are, on the contrary, presented as the result of reciprocal acculturation. The authors show that the Slovenes made more than two important appearances throughout the entire feudal era; the same holds for later periods, especially for the twentieth century. This book offers a concise and complete history of an area that finally became an integral part of Central Europe and the Balkans.

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FEUDALISM

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REORGANIZATION OF THE MARCHES AND A SHIFT OF ETHNIC AND LANGUAGE BORDERS Shortly after conquering the Magyars, the restored Roman–German Empire continued to expand towards the southeast. In socio-economic terms, the res- toration could not simply resume where the Carolingians had left off, because the Carolingian order had broken down during the Magyar incursions south of the Karavanke Mountains, while the remaining population had hung onto old Slavic customs. The entire region of the Eastern Alps was divided anew into one duchy and several marches. Along the Danube, the Eastern March was restored to secure defense against the Magyars. The most important unit was the Duchy of Carantania, a part of the Duchy of Bavaria. The latter was in 952 united with the marches of Friuli and Verona. The Duchy of Bavaria thus covered the entire region inhabited by the predecessors of the modern- day Slovenes. King Otto I inaugurated his brother, Henry I, as the first ruler of this “super-duchy.” He was succeeded by his underage son Henry II, but the united country was actually led by his mother Judith, the daughter of the former Bavarian Duke Arnulf. In 976 Henry II rose against Emperor Otto II and was replaced, while Carantania was detached from Bavaria to become an independent duchy. The detached duchy kept its marches, from the middle course of the Mura River to Verona. This was very important for the political situation in northern Italy, where the Italic kingdom was already disintegrat- ing into a...

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