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The Land Between

A History of Slovenia

Edited By Oto Luthar

This is a history of a space – a space between the Panonian plain in the East and the most northernmost bay in the Adriatic in the West, from the eastern Alps in the North and the Dinaridic mountain area in the South. It is also a history of all the different people who lived in this area. The authors show that the Slavs did not settle an empty space and simply replace the Celto-Roman inhabitants of earlier times; they are, on the contrary, presented as the result of reciprocal acculturation. The authors show that the Slovenes made more than two important appearances throughout the entire feudal era; the same holds for later periods, especially for the twentieth century. This book offers a concise and complete history of an area that finally became an integral part of Central Europe and the Balkans.

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THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD

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FROM HUMANISM TO REFORMATION The Late Middle Ages may have been the most exhausting period for the Slovenian territory since the migration of peoples, but it nevertheless planted the first seeds of future progress. Emperor Frederick III could not appease his anxiety over retaining the estates on the southeastern flanks of the Holy Roman Empire even by assuming possession of the Celeian heritage. In 1461 he founded the Ljubljana Diocese, mainly to restrict the ecclesiastical impact of the Patriarch of Aquileia, who depended on Venice and had been residing in Cividale del Friuli and Udine ever since the outbreak of the first war between La Serenissima and the Habsburgs.188 The existence of the new diocese was affirmed by the emperor’s former secretary, Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, in 1462. Initially the diocese was absurdly small: while it was undoubtedly allot- ted no more than three parishes, thirteen others were merely designated as sources of income for sustaining its dignitaries. This led to constant wrangling with the Aquileian authorities. Nonetheless, the Ljubljana bishops were before long elevated to princes in 1533, and before the beginning of the 17th century were also able to impose their authority over the entire territory that, one way or another, was continuously mentioned in relation to the establishment of their diocese. Moreover, striving to settle the controversies in the late medieval Church (the decline of the “Council” party and the ascendancy of the “Papal” party), Emperor Frederick managed to attain the right to appoint bishops of Trieste, further...

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