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Exemplifications, Selections and Argumentations

The Use of Example Markers in English and German

Ekkehard Eggs and Dermot McElholm

This linguistic research monograph focuses primarily on the uses of example markers or connectors in English (for example, for instance, such as etc.) and, to a lesser extent, in German ([so] zum Beispiel, beispielsweise etc.). It analyses these uses not only from a linguistics viewpoint (syntax, semantics, pragmatics, information and text structure, intonation) but also integrates issues of rhetoric, philosophy and, in particular, of argumentation theory. This approach leads to the distinction of three main uses of example markers − exemplification, selection, argumentation − and thus entails the abandonment of the traditional grammatical approach, which only recognizes exemplifying use, and of the more recent approach in computational linguistics, which only distinguishes selective use.

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1 Introduction ........................................................................................... 7 2 The types of use of example markers – general overview ............... 11 2.1 The descriptive use of example markers ............................................... 14 2.1.1 Example markers in enumerative appositions and in noun or prepositional phrases: exemplifications and selections ........................ 14 2.1.2 The generalising effect of example markers ......................................... 24 2.1.3 Example markers in enumerative appositions: instantiations and specifications ........................................................... 26 2.1.4 Exemplifications in non-appositive structures ...................................... 30 2.1.5 The position of the example markers in selections and exemplifications – issues of syntactical and information structure ...... 32 2.1.6 Potentially propositional prepositional phrases (because of, in spite of) ......................................................................... 38 2.1.7 Focussing and contrastive intonation .................................................... 49 2.2 Descriptive uses in sentences or clauses in the scope domain .............. 53 2.2.1 Complex sentences with adverbial clauses ........................................... 53 2.2.2 Complex sentences with non-adverbial clauses: that-clauses .............. 58 2.2.3 Complex sentences with non-adverbial clauses: relative clauses ......... 62 2.2.3.1 Non-integrated uses − transphrastic links and determinations ............. 63 2.2.3.2 Integrated uses ....................................................................................... 74 2.3 Descriptive and argumentative uses in comparisons ........................... 78 3 The argumentative use of example markers .................................... 85 3.1 Abductive und deductive forms ............................................................ 86 3.2 Inductive and analogical forms ........................................................... 100 3.3 A fortiori-arguments and graduated argumentative blocs: let alone ... 108 3.4 On the linguistic vs. dialectical classification of examples. Example arguments without example markers ................................... 117 4 The uses of example markers in German ....................................... 123 4.1 Complete or almost complete overlapping: exemplifications ............ 124 4.2 Partially overlapping uses: selections ................................................. 127 4.3 Almost complete overlapping: argumentative use .............................. 132 4.4 Transphrastic patterns ......................................................................... 142 5 Bibliography ...................................................................................... 149

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