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Proliferation and Implementation of Prison Ombudsmen

Comparative Analysis of the Prisons and Probation Ombudsman for England and Wales and the Justizvollzugsbeauftragter des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen

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Sabine Carl

Prison ombudsmen are charged with investigating claims of injustice and breaches of human rights within the total institutions of the penal system. This book comprehensively explains which needs these institutions were intended to meet, why they spread around the globe and how their proliferation determined their implementation. Using a grounded theory approach, the author examines one subject each from both the common and civil law world. The result is a detailed analysis of the acute impact of pressure on cross-fertilization processes involving human rights-sensitive penal institutions.

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Abbreviations .................................................................................................... XV Figures ............................................................................................................. XVII Tables ............................................................................................................ XVIII A Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 B Current state of research .................................................................................... 7 I. The ombudsman as a concept .................................................................... 7 1. Short history ...................................................................................... 8 2. Double function ............................................................................... 12 3. Features ........................................................................................... 14 4. Practice ............................................................................................ 17 5. Expectations .................................................................................... 20 a) positive ........................................................................................ 21 b) negative ....................................................................................... 23 6. Categorization ................................................................................. 25 a) Public and private sector ............................................................. 26 b) Traditional, classical, parliamentary, legislative, executive ....... 27 c) Organizational, corporate, advocate ........................................... 31 d) General, specialty, single subject ............................................... 32 e) Multiple-mandate, hybrid ........................................................... 33 7. Definition ........................................................................................ 34 a) Existing definitions ..................................................................... 34 b) New definition ............................................................................ 36 II. Prison Ombudsmen ................................................................................ 37 1. Demand ........................................................................................... 39 a) Internal grievance channels ........................................................ 41 aa) Administration ........................................................................ 41 bb) Prison boards .......................................................................... 42 cc) Inmate councils ....................................................................... 44 X b) External grievance channels ....................................................... 44 aa) Parliamentarians; parliamentary committees; monarchs and other heads of state .................................................................. 45 bb) General ombudsmen ............................................................... 46 cc) NGOs, pastoral caregivers and the media ............................... 48 dd) European and international authorities ................................... 49 ee) Courts ...................................................................................... 50 c) The prison ombudsman as an alternative solution...................... 53 2. Legal basis ....................................................................................... 54 3. Remit ............................................................................................... 55 4. Investigations .................................................................................. 56 a) Reactive ....................................................................................... 57 b) Proactive ..................................................................................... 58 5. Expectations .................................................................................... 60 a) Positive ........................................................................................ 60 b) Negative ...................................................................................... 61 6. Existence ......................................................................................... 64 III. Learning processes in between legal systems ....................................... 66 1. The possibility of knowledge transfer............................................. 66 a) Negated ....................................................................................... 67 b) Accepted ..................................................................................... 70 2. The perspectives .............................................................................. 71 3. The two step process ....................................................................... 73 4. The driving factors .......................................................................... 78 C Methodology .................................................................................................... 83 I. Method selection ...................................................................................... 83 1. Grounded theory ............................................................................. 83 2. Qualitative instead of quantitative research .................................... 87 3. Research materials and sources ...................................................... 88 a) Literature ..................................................................................... 89 XI b)...

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