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Controversy over the Existence of the World

Volume I

Series:

Roman Ingarden

Roman Ingarden (1893-1970), one of Husserl’s closest students and friends, ranks among the most eminent of the first generation of phenomenologists. His magisterial Controversy over the Existence of the World, written during the years of World War II in occupied Poland, consists of a fundamental defense of realism in phenomenology. Volume I, which receives here its first complete and critical translation into English, initiates the grand project of refuting transcendental idealism, and begins by setting the foundations for an elaborate and precise ontological system. This is Ingarden’s greatest accomplishment, who is rather known as a theoretician of literature than an ontologist outside of Poland. The most important achievement of Ingarden’s ontology is an analysis of the modes of being of various types of objects – things, processes, events, purely intentional objects and ideas. The three-volume Controversy is perhaps the last great systematic work in the history of philosophy, and undoubtedly one of the most important works in 20th century philosophical literature.

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Translator’s Note ................................................................................................... 7 Introduction Jan Woleński ....................................................................................................... 11 Preface ................................................................................................................. 19 Addendum to the German Edition ...................................................................... 25 Chapter I Preliminary Reflections .................................................................................... 27 § 1. Introduction ......................................................................................... 27 § 2. The Presuppositions of the Controversy and its Provisional Formulation ......................................................................................... 32 § 3. The Requisite of Sorting Out Various Groups of Problems .............. 41 Chapter II Partition of the Three Major Problem Groups .............................................. 47 § 4. Introductory Remarks ......................................................................... 47 § 5. Science and Philosophy ...................................................................... 49 § 6. Further Characterization of Philosophical Problems .......................... 61 § 7. Theory of Knowledge and its Problems .............................................. 83 § 8. Transition to Further Problems ........................................................... 86 § 9. Three Groups of Ontological Problems .............................................. 87 Part I Existential-Ontological Problems of the Controversy over the Existence of the World ....................................................................... 93 Chapter III Basic Existential Concepts ................................................................................ 95 § 10. The Problem of the Possibility of Analyzing Existence ..................... 95 § 11. Modes of Being and Existential Moments .......................................... 99 § 12. Existential Autonomy and Existential Heteronomy .......................... 109 § 13. Existential Originality and Existential Derivativeness ..................... 118 § 14. Existential Selfsufficiency and Existential Non-selfsufficiency ....... 147 § 15. Existential Dedpendence and Existential Independence ................... 153 § 16. Absolute Being – Relative Being ...................................................... 155 § 17. Outlook on the Existential-Ontological Questions Relevant to the Problem of the Existence of the World ................................... 161 18 Table of Contents Chapter IV ⌜Provisional Survey of the Currently Feasible Variants of a Solution to the Controversy⌝ .................................................................. 167 § 18. Introduction ....................................................................................... 167 § 19. Group I of Possible Solutions of the Controversy ............................ 170 § 20. Group II of Possible Solutions .......................................................... 197 § 21. Group III of Prospective Solutions ................................................... 201 § 22. Group IV of Prospective Solutions ................................................... 205 § 23. Group V of Prospective Solutions .................................................... 210 § 24. Groups VI – VIII of Prospective Solutions...

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