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Conflict of National Identity in Sudan

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Kuel Jok

This study addresses the contemporary conflict of national identity in Sudan between the adherents of Islamic nationalism and those of customary secularism. The former urge the adoption of a national constitution that derives its civil and criminal laws from the Sharia, and want Arabic as the language of instruction in national institutions. The latter demand the adoption of secular laws, derived from the set of customary laws, and equal opportunities for all African languages beside Arabic and English. In the past, the adherents of Islamic nationalism imposed the Islamic-Arab model. In reaction, secularists resorted to violence; the Islamists declared Jihad against the secularists and adopted a racial war, which has caused a humanitarian disaster. The main primary material of this research is based on a survey conducted among 500 students of five universities in Sudan. Besides, the study considers the diverse theoretical models for the formation of a nation-state, where diversity is not discouraged, but states apply laws to promote religious and ethnic diversities within one territorial state.

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ACHPR African Charter on Human and People’s Rights AL Arab League AU African Union CPA Comprehensive Peace Agreement DDF Darfur Development Front DLF Darfur Liberation Front DOP Declaration of Principles DUP Democratic Unionist Party EU European Union GDP Gross Domestic Product GONU Government of National Unity GoS Government of Sudan GUN Union of the Nuba Mountains HAC Humanitarian Affairs Commission HAMAS Islamic Resistance Movement HROs Human Rights Offices HRW Human Rights Watch ICC International Criminal Court ICF Islamic Charter Front IDPs Internally Displaced Persons IGAD Intergovernmental Authority for Development IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development JEM Justice and Equality Movement MI Military Intelligence MPs Members of Parliament NANS National Alliance for National Salvation NCP National Congress party NDA National Democratic Alliance NGOs Non-Governmental Organisations NIF National Islamic Front NSR National Salvation Revolution NTC National Television of Sudan OPEC Organisation for Petroleum Exporting Countries PAEC Parliamentary Assessment of Evaluation Commission 8PCP Popular Congress Party POL Public Order Law PPO Police of Public Order RCC Revolutionary Command Council RSG Regional Self-Government SAF Sudan Armed Forces SCC Sudan Council of Churches SCP Sudanese Communist Party SHRO Sudanese Human Rights Organisation SLA Sudan Liberation Army SLM Sudan Liberation Movement SNP Sudanese National Party SPI Sudanese Peace Initiative SPLA Sudan People’s Liberation Army SPLM Sudan People’s Liberation Movement SSLM South Sudan Liberation Movement SSU Sudanese Socialist Union SVTG Sudan Victims of Torture Group TGOD Transitional Government of Darfur States TMC Transitional Military Council UK United Kingdom UN United Nations UNAMID United Nations/African Union Mission...

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