1 Theoretical Framework and Sudanese Conflicting Nationalism
Researching on the topic of identity is extremely controversial, because of its three conflicting philosophical conceptions. For the Enlightenment, identity is a human-person fully centred as unified individual and sufficiently endowed with reason and conscious action and therefore, the self is an identity of a person.78 In contrast, sociological inter-actionists reject this theory and argue that self-personal identity is not entirely sufficient; instead, it is formed in relation to ‘significant others’ or interaction between self and society. 79 For the post-mod- ernists, identity is not permanent; it is constantly formed and transformed in rela- tion to the ways a society is represented in cultural institutions. It is not biological, but historical; therefore, contradictory identities at different time of history can construct a comfortable narrative that unifies their identities into a unified one.80 Political forces in Sudan have failed to construct a comfortable narrative for the diverse religious and ethnic groups in the state. They have, instead, estab- lished racial and discriminatory institutions making the civil violence in Sudan to be fundamentally a conflict of identity based on the dynamics of racism and discrimination within the political, cultural and social institutions of the territory. The research rejects the claim of some scholars that the past and the current civil wars in the country are products of the colonial ‘British Policy’ of the ‘Closed District Ordinance’. For instance, Beshir Muhammed Said claims that the colo- nial British Government decided to introduce a legal system the ‘Closed District Ordinance’ since 1922 and effectively...
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