Reframing the Relations of Media, Knowledge, and Innovation in Society
I. Culture and Creativity
I Culture and Creativity Creativity as Dispositif ANDREAS RECKWITZ To study creativity from a sociological point of view, there are in prin- ciple two alternatives: either creativity is understood as a basic quality and requirement of the social and of social action per se; or creativity is analyzed as a very specific social and cultural constellation itself, as a product of the social, above all in modern or postmodern times. In any case, sociologically, creativity is to be envisaged from a dif- ferent angle compared with the ubiquitous psychological analyses of this phenomenon. Most psychological studies of creativity, which since Joy Paul Guilford’s seminal lecture during the congress of the Ameri- can Psychological Association in 1950 have been flourishing, take crea- tivity as a universal mental capacity which can be trained by additional psychological techniques (cf. Runco 2007). Whenever creativity is of interest to sociology, though, it must be seen as a social and cultural phenomenon. But this sociality can refer to two different constellations: On the plane of a general social theory, creativity in the broad sense of the ever going evolving of the new—of new socially relevant events or of new human actions respectively—can be detected as a structural feature which is inherent in “the social,” be it social interactions or so- cial practices, communication or social processes. Creativity is here so to speak a basic requirement of the social. Heinrich Popitz’s (1997) and Hans Joas’s (1992) account of creativity take this track. So does—in...