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History of Schooling

Politics and Local Practice

Edited By Carla Aubry and Johannes Westberg Ph.D.

The relationship between education policy and local practices is at the core of research pertaining to the history of education. In this volume, the authors examine this issue from a multitude of perspectives, presenting a broad and comprehensive picture of schooling on international, national and local levels. Three issues of great significance, both in the history of schooling, and for educational policy – «School Finance», «School Reform» and «School Media» – are discussed in relation to five European countries by addressing topics such as textbook supply in the eighteenth century, the spread of monitorial education, the rise of educational expenditure during the nineteenth century, and the internationalization of educational policy during the twentieth century.

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Schooling: an international, national, and local issue

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Carla Aubry andjohannes Westberg 1 Karl Schleunes, Schooling and society: the politics o f education in Prussia and Bavaria 1750-1900 (Oxford: Berg, 1989), 14; Pavla Miller, Transformations o f Patriarchy in the West, 1500-1900 (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998), 184; Peter H. Lindert, Growing public: social spending and economic growth since the eighteenth century Vol. 1 The story (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 110, 114. Christian Nique, Comment l école devint une affaire d’État (1815-1840) (Éditions Nathan: Paris, 1990). 2 See, e.g., Raymond Grew, Patrick Harrigan and James Whitney, ‘The Availability of Schooling in Nineteenth-Century France, Journal o f Interdisciplinary History 14, no. 1 (1983). 3 See e.g. Ben Eklof, Russian Peasant Schools: Officialdom, Village culture, and Popular Pedagogy, 1861-1914 (Berkeley, 1986), 3; Lindert, Growing public; W. B. Stephens, Educa­ tion, literacy and society, 1830-70: The geography o f diversity in provincial England (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987). Joachim Bahlcke and Thomas Win­ kelbauer, Schulstiftungen und Studienfinanzierung (München: Böhlau & Oldenburg, 2011). 7 The relationship between education policy and local practices is at the core of research into the history of education. The interaction between these dif­ ferent levels has been interpreted in a variety of different ways. In traditional accounts, politics - primarily national - has been perceived as fundamental. From this perspective, research has emphasized fundamental legislative acts such as the General School Regulations for the Rural Schools (Prussia, 1763), the Public Education Act (Denmark, 1814), the Guizot Law (France, 1833) and Forster’s Elementary Education...

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