A History of the Polish Intelligentsia – Part 3, Edited by Jerzy Jedlicki
Chapter 1: The situation of the Polish intelligentsia after the January Insurrection
1. Professional development opportunities The late 1860s and early 1870s were marked with a deep and long-lasting change in the Polish intelligentsia’s self-consciousness and ideological profile, and impressed their stamp on most issues relating to the intelligentsia’s every- day exist ence and prospects for professional development� The intelligentsia had to (re) define themselves, and continue developing in the bosom of three thor- oughly different state organisms which themselves were subject at that time to grave transformations and reforms� After the January Insurrection was defeated, the Russian Partition was subject to brutal repression affecting the whole of society, not just its intellectual elite� The physical losses in the insurgent fights and summary executions were multi- plied by the subsequent deportations into the depths of Russia, of Siberia, which embraced some 40,000 insurrectionists and their families, thus eliminating them for a number of years, often forever, from the country’s life� Detentions and de- portations were accompanied by the confiscation of property, upsetting owner- ship conditions (particularly in rural areas) or, at times, irrecoverably changing the country’s map, since a frequent practice in Białystok Land, Byelorussia and Lithuania was the displacement of entire nobility-owned small farms, under the pretext that their dwellers had participated in the uprising� A majority among the deportees were the movement’s most active and most conscious participants, dedicated to the idea of an expeditious restoration of an independent Poland� The Circum-Baikal [also called Baikal] Uprising of 1866 closed this stage of Pol- ish history� Initiated by a...
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