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Art in Motion

Musical and Athletic Motor Learning and Performance

Edited By Adina Mornell

Musicians tend to believe that the mystery of their art cannot be objectively studied, quantified, or explained. As a result, the term «motor learning» is rarely used in connection with musicians, and an empirical approach to musical performance is more the exception than the rule. Sports scientists, however, show a great interest in musicians because of their advanced skill level and the attentional and emotional demands of the concert stage. This work combines knowledge across disciplines. Advances toward an understanding of human behavior and cognition offer clues to strategies of motor learning and performance that promote the well-being of musicians and athletes. This book provides a forum for an interdisciplinary exchange of research, laying the groundwork for future projects.

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The Role of Anticipatory Processes in Simulator Based Training of Complex Psychomotor Skills (K. Wolfgang Kallus)

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The Role of Anticipatory Processes in Simulator Based Training of Complex Psychomotor Skills This paper discusses the role of anticipatory processes in complex psychomotor skills. Starting from concepts of anticipatory regulation of psychomotorprocesses,thisrolewillbeillustratedwithpsychophysiological data from antidisorientation trainings with pilots, which were conducted in a flight simulator. The psychophysiological data support the view that anticipatory processes play a central role in the regulation of complex behaviors in dynamic environments. Finally, some implications for psychomotor performance of performance artists are derived. The concept of anticipatory behavior control While classical Anglo-American models in psychology predominantly viewed behavior in an S-R (stimulus response) “behaviorism” perspective, the anticipation-oriented models date back to the early cognitive psychology “Wuerzburg School” and Russian action-oriented psychology (Vygotsky, 1981; Leontjew, 1982). Repeatedly, cognitive models of behavior and psychomotor processes have emerged, which present convincing evidence that a broad range of behaviors cannot be explained without a cognitive anticipation of futures states. One of the most widely known concepts in this tradition is the Nobel prize winning reafference principle (von Holst & Mittelstaedt, 1950), which assumes that motor action is based on continuous feedback and comparison with a mental representation of the movement “efference copy.” More recent models have been published by Gigerenzer (2007, 2008), Hoffmann (2003) and Hommel & Prinz (2001). All of them stress the central role of expectations or anticipations for the successful regulation of goal-directed behavior. In the human factors literature, the concept of situation awareness has become a very common model to explain suboptimal behavior. This model,...

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