Musical and Athletic Motor Learning and Performance
Edited By Adina Mornell
The Role of Anticipatory Processes in Simulator Based Training of Complex Psychomotor Skills (K. Wolfgang Kallus)
The Role of Anticipatory Processes in Simulator Based Training of Complex Psychomotor Skills This paper discusses the role of anticipatory processes in complex psychomotor skills. Starting from concepts of anticipatory regulation of psychomotorprocesses,thisrolewillbeillustratedwithpsychophysiological data from antidisorientation trainings with pilots, which were conducted in a ﬂight simulator. The psychophysiological data support the view that anticipatory processes play a central role in the regulation of complex behaviors in dynamic environments. Finally, some implications for psychomotor performance of performance artists are derived. The concept of anticipatory behavior control While classical Anglo-American models in psychology predominantly viewed behavior in an S-R (stimulus response) “behaviorism” perspective, the anticipation-oriented models date back to the early cognitive psychology “Wuerzburg School” and Russian action-oriented psychology (Vygotsky, 1981; Leontjew, 1982). Repeatedly, cognitive models of behavior and psychomotor processes have emerged, which present convincing evidence that a broad range of behaviors cannot be explained without a cognitive anticipation of futures states. One of the most widely known concepts in this tradition is the Nobel prize winning reafference principle (von Holst & Mittelstaedt, 1950), which assumes that motor action is based on continuous feedback and comparison with a mental representation of the movement “efference copy.” More recent models have been published by Gigerenzer (2007, 2008), Hoffmann (2003) and Hommel & Prinz (2001). All of them stress the central role of expectations or anticipations for the successful regulation of goal-directed behavior. In the human factors literature, the concept of situation awareness has become a very common model to explain suboptimal behavior. This model,...
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