Edited By Eduardo Cintra Torres and Samuel Mateus
Introduction ([Eduardo Cintra Torres] [Samuel Mateus])
Eduardo Cintra Torres & Samuel Mateus Introduction The 19th and 20th century provided stages for the political affirmation of social groups and the concomitant emergence of social movements as collective endeav- ours to promote political and social change in any direction and by any means, either peaceful or violent, reformist or revolutionary, consensual or rebellious� This period saw the rise of the social movement in the sense of a set of people who deliberately committed themselves to a shared identity, a unifying belief, a com- mon programme and a collective struggle to carry out social action� In the 21st century, we are witnessing the transformation of the traditional forms of social action� Indeed, the repertoire of collective action (Tilly, 1978) has changed, as organization and public recognition are radically different when networked me- dia allow for new orders of functioning� The revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests, riots, and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 18 December 2010 are an illustrative case� The Arab Spring had, in new communication tools such as the Internet and social networks, a key factor in social mobilization and socio-political demands (Khondker, 2011)� The same occurred with, for instance, social protests in the United States (Gitlin, 2012), Portugal, Greece and Spain: all related to the global financial and economic crisis� These events showed the im- pact of the new communication tools in the co-relation of individuals touched by the causes, but also called into question the role of the journalistic media, now called...
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