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Prolegomena to the Study of Modern Philosophy



This book is divided into nine chapters trying to draw attention to the various aspects of the understanding of God, to the question of the individual, the ideal state arrangement, and the question of freedom (free will) as well as of history. Special attention is paid to the issue of cognition, the question of reason and sense, as well as language and the issue of a system in philosophy. The chapters are arranged to show the historical characteristics of the issues with an introduction of the key approach and ideas with references.


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Prolegomena to the Study of Modern Philosophy


  The present work does not attempt to provide a detailed history of modern philosophy or an exhaustive interpre- tation and analysis of the ideas and works of individual philosophers and philosophies. There are suffi cient clas- sic works like these in the international (F. Copleston, Cambridge Companion to Philosophy, Oxford, Rout- ledge, Blackwell) as well as domestic linguistic environ- ment (Dějiny fi losofi e (The History of Philosophy), OIKOY- MENH – Vol. 13). The aim of the present text is rather to focus on briefl y introducing the issue – to introduce the reader to the basic problematic issues of modern philos- ophy, the concepts and their solutions, the fundamental theories and ideas, and the defi nitions of key notions, ideas, and approaches. Therefore, this is not a  typical history-philosophy thesis, but rather an outline of char- 8acteristics of the thinking in the period – by thematising the main topics of modern-day thinking. If we discuss the historical approach to philosophy in the modern era, from the beginning we need to point out that defi ning the modern period is itself associated with a  number of challenges concerning delineation. Firstly, the modern period has not yet been defi ned by an historical event that has been generally accepted as the beginning or end of the period. To this day, historians continue to argue if such an initial milestone exists, and if so, which historical event it is (the discovery of Amer- ica in 1492, Germany in 1517 (Luther’s theses), the refor- mation in...

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