Language in Modern Philosophy
Keywords: universality, relativity, arbitrariness of expression, limitation by language, non-commensurability The term “linguistic turn” refers to a movement of thought which ﬁ rst occurred in the early 20th century – mainly in analytical and pragmatic philosophy – which drew attention to the need for language research and structure, and the depiction and construction of the world through language, as well as its inﬂ uence on philosophical thought. Even if the philosophical period from Cusanus to Hegel has been predominantly called the philosophy of consciousness, the modern period is also characterised by its unique approach to language. The ﬁ rst signiﬁ cant moment diff erentiating the modern period from previous periods was abandoning a uniﬁ ed and universal language. While the Ancient world was characterised by the use of Ancient Greek, (and later predominantly Latin) as early as the Middle Ages, the world was dominated by a uniﬁ ed scientiﬁ c 92 and philosophical language – Latin. However, a new tendency occurred during the Renaissance. On one hand, there was a return to original languages moti- vated by the question of the accuracy of the translation of Aristotle from Arabic, and by the arrival of eastern scholars who once again mediated Greek heritage (Gemi- stos Pletho, Theodorus Gaza,…; as well as by an inter- est in Hebrew – Kabbalah; Arabic, and the like). On the other hand, there was a steadily increasing tendency to translate original writings into the living languages of people (Ficino translated Plato, Gaza translated Aristo- tle into Latin; with the arrival of Luther,...
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