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Prolegomena to the Study of Modern Philosophy



This book is divided into nine chapters trying to draw attention to the various aspects of the understanding of God, to the question of the individual, the ideal state arrangement, and the question of freedom (free will) as well as of history. Special attention is paid to the issue of cognition, the question of reason and sense, as well as language and the issue of a system in philosophy. The chapters are arranged to show the historical characteristics of the issues with an introduction of the key approach and ideas with references.


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Language in Modern Philosophy


  Keywords: universality, relativity, arbitrariness of expression, limitation by language, non-commensurability   The term “linguistic turn” refers to a  movement of thought which fi rst occurred in the early 20th century – mainly in analytical and pragmatic philosophy – which drew attention to the need for language research and structure, and the depiction and construction of the world through language, as well as its infl uence on philosophical thought. Even if the philosophical period from Cusanus to Hegel has been predominantly called the philosophy of consciousness, the modern period is also characterised by its unique approach to language. The fi rst signifi cant moment diff erentiating the modern period from previous periods was abandoning a  unifi ed and universal language. While the Ancient world was characterised by the use of Ancient Greek, (and later predominantly Latin) as early as the Middle Ages, the world was dominated by a  unifi ed scientifi c 92 and philosophical language – Latin. However, a  new tendency occurred during the Renaissance. On one hand, there was a  return to original languages moti- vated by the question of the accuracy of the translation of Aristotle from Arabic, and by the arrival of eastern scholars who once again mediated Greek heritage (Gemi- stos Pletho, Theodorus Gaza,…; as well as by an inter- est in Hebrew – Kabbalah; Arabic, and the like). On the other hand, there was a steadily increasing tendency to translate original writings into the living languages of people (Ficino translated Plato, Gaza translated Aristo- tle into Latin; with the arrival of Luther,...

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