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Academic Writing

Selected Topics in Writing an Academic Paper

Series:

Silvia Gáliková

The textbook concentrates on selected topics and problematic aspects in preparing a cohesive and well-organised academic paper, such as: the relation between thinking and writing, establishing arguments, using logic and appropriate language in argumentative writing. The author considers writing as thinking made visible, as thinking in slow motion, a process whereby we can inspect and reflect on what we are thinking about. Writing doesn’t simply convey thought, it also forges it. It is a two-way street, both expressing and generating ideas.

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VI. Logic in thoughts and words

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61 VI Logic in thoughts and words Keywords: syllogism, argumentation, premise, induction, deduction As repeatedly stated in the preceding section of this text, thinking and writing are mutually intertwined. According to the recognised American author and narra- tor, D. McCullough, “Writing is thinking. To write well is to think clearly. That’s why it’s so hard”. And he seems to be absolutely right. So let’s get back to the process of writing itself. The following text is designed to help students develop and use logical arguments in writing, analyse the arguments of others and generate their own arguments. There are three types of persuasive strategies, used to support claims and respond to opposing arguments: 1) logos, 2) inductive reasoning, and 3) deductive reason- ing. A good argument will generally use a combination of all three appeals to make its case. Logos, or the appeal 62 to reason, relies on logic or reason. Logos often depends on the use of inductive or deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning takes a specifi c representative case or facts and then draws generalisations or conclusions from them. Inductive reasoning must be based on a suf- fi cient amount of reliable evidence. In other words, the facts you draw on must fairly represent the larger situa- tion or population. There are varying degrees of strength and weakness in inductive reasoning, and various types including statistical syllogism, arguments from exam- ple, causal inferences, simple inductions, and inductive generalisations. They can have part to whole relations, extrapolations, or predictions. Example: Every...

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