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Introduction to Philosophy

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Renáta Kišoňová

The first part of this textbook introduces philosophy to the reader as a part of culture, in addition to science, religion, art. It outlines various disciplines of philosophy, metaphysics, epistemology, aesthetics, philosophy of mind etc. The second part maps the understanding of history, or the philosophical reflection of history in the history of philosophy.

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  Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 7 1. What is Philosophy? ............................................................................................................. 9 2. Philosophy as a Term ............................................................................................................ 19 3. Origin and Formation of Philosophy ................................................................... 21 3.1. Wonder .............................................................................................................................. 21 3.2. Doubt .................................................................................................................................. 22 3.3. Boundary Situation ............................................................................................... 22 3.4. Origin of Philosophy ............................................................................................ 23 4. Philosophical Disciplines ...................................................................................................... 25 4.1. Metaphysics .................................................................................................................. 25 4.2. Epistemology .............................................................................................................. 27 4.3. Social Philosophy .................................................................................................... 28 4.4. Philosophical Anthropology ........................................................................ 29 4.5. Aesthetics ........................................................................................................................ 30 4.6. Ethics ................................................................................................................................... 32 4.7. Logic ..................................................................................................................................... 33 4.8. Philosophy of Mind ............................................................................................... 34 65. Philosophy and History ..................................................................................................... 37 5.1. Philosophy of History .......................................................................................... 37 5.2. Ancient Philosophy and History ............................................................... 41 5.3. The Jews and History .......................................................................................... 42 5.4. Medieval Philosophy and History ........................................................... 45 5.5. St. Augustine ................................................................................................................ 50 5.6. Renaissance Philosophy ................................................................................... 52 5.7. Modern Philosophy and History .............................................................. 54 5.8. Vico ........................................................................................................................................ 55 5.9. The French Enlightenment ............................................................................ 58 5.10. Voltaire ............................................................................................................................... 60 5.11 Condorcet ....................................................................................................................... 63 5.12. Comte ................................................................................................................................. 65 5.13. The German Enlightenment and History ........................................ 67 5.14. Herder ................................................................................................................................. 68 5.15. Kant and his Contribution to History .................................................. 72 5.16. Hegel ................................................................................................................................... 75 5.17. Nietzsche and History ........................................................................................ 81 5.18. Spengler ........................................................................................................................... 86 5.19. Jaspers ................................................................................................................................ 90 6. Philosophy and Science .................................................................................................... 97 7. Instead of Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 101 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................ 103

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