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Metaphysics

Selected Problems of Metaphysics and Ontology

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Renáta Kišoňová

The presented text offers a basic overview of the terms and topics of the very wide philosophical discipline called metaphysics. The text includes, besides an overview of individual problems, reflections to consider and recommended literature. Readers will become familiar with the basic terms (metaphysics, ontology, existence, being), with the metaphysics of archaic nations, Parmenides’s approach to understand being as The One, the understanding of time and events of the Greeks, the problem of categories according to Aristotle and Kant, the problem of intuition and fundamental ontology.

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  1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 7 2. Clarifi cation of Terms ........................................................................................................... 9 2.1. Metaphysics ...................................................................................................................... 9 2.2. Being as a Term .............................................................................................................. 10 2.3. Ontology .............................................................................................................................. 12 2.4. Existence ............................................................................................................................... 14 3. Metaphysics and Ontology of Archaic Nations ......................................... 19 4. Being as The One. Parmenides .................................................................................. 25 5. Time and Events in the Greeks. Pre-Socratic Philosophers and Plato .......................................................................................................................................... 29 6. Metaphysics as a Categorical Description ...................................................... 37 6.1. Aristotelian Categories ........................................................................................... 38 6.2. Kant’s Categories .......................................................................................................... 39 6.3. More Recent Refl ections ....................................................................................... 42 7. Criticism of Metaphysics .................................................................................................. 45 7.1. Metaphysics and Postmodernism ............................................................. 48 68. Metaphysics as a Way to God ..................................................................................... 51 8.1. Negative Theology of Dionysius the Areopagite ............... 51 8.2. Theocentrism of J.S. Eriugena ................................................... 61 8.3. Ontological Proof of God according to Anselm of Canterbury .................................................................................. 62 8.4. Five Ways to God of Thomas Aquinas ................................................. 64 9. Problems of the Universals ............................................................................................ 67 10. Metaphysics and Problem of Intuition. Henri Bergson ..................... 71 10.1. Duration ........................................................................................................................... 74 10.2. Ontology of the Past ............................................................................................ 80 11. Metaphysics and Problem of Being. Martin Heidegger .................... 83 11.1. The Meaning of Being ........................................................................................ 83 11.2. “Phenomenon“ as an Expression ............................................................ 85 11.3. “Logos” as an Expression ................................................................................. 87 11.4. Phenomenology ..................................................................................................... 87 11.5. Fundamental Ontology ................................................................................... 90 11.6. Problem of Metaphysics after the “Turn” ........................................ 96 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................. 101 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................ 103

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