Selected Problems of Metaphysics and Ontology
4. Being as The One. Parmenides
Without exaggeration it is possible to say that Parme- nides laid, by means of his philosophical poem, the foun- dations for ontology as well as for anti-metaphysical positions. He is considered to be the most revolution- ary and at the same time the most diffi cult to interpret of the pre-Socratic philosophers. According to Diogenes Laertius, he wrote only one work, a metaphysical-cos- mological poem in hexametre which originally consisted of approximately 800 verses but fewer than 160 of them were preserved. Reﬂ ections on the three ways by means of which we can (or cannot) get to know can be found in Parmenides’ fractions. The ﬁ rst way of thinking is the one which says that “something is.” Parmenides considers this way to be the right one. Another two ways which say that “nothing is not” and “something is and is not at the same time” are excluded by him: “I want to tell you – listen carefully 26 to my words and keep them – which ways of examination are the conceivable ones: one that is and cannot be, that is the way of conviction because it follows the truth; the sec- ond one that is also not and necessarily does not have to be” 28 B2 (Antológia z diel ﬁ lozofov (Predsokratovci Platón, zv.1), p. 118). “It is necessary to speak and think that existing as being is but nothing is not. I command you to think about it. First, I want to divert you from this way but...
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