3. Sense and Knowledge in Indian Philosophy
Keywords: Darshana, lack of knowledge, discussion, scepticism, perspectivism 3.1 An Overview of Indian Philosophical Systems (Darshanas) In the ﬁ rst half of the ﬁ rst millennium B.C., non-orthodox systems of thought (Nastika) were formed, for which the Vedas were no longer an authority and they formulated their own answers to philosophical questions regardless of the Vedic tradition or even opposed to it. The three most signiﬁ cant systems are Buddhism, Jainism, and materialism (Charvaka). These systems became a chal- lenge to the Vedic tradition, which was then forced to justify its position in a new way. It resulted in the crea- tion of six orthodox or classical schools of Indian philos- ophy: Sankhya, Yoga, Vaisheshika, Nyaya, Mimamsa, and Vedanta. All of these darshanas recognise the authority of Vedas and follow the thoughts of the Upanishads. Tra- 28 ditionally, they are arranged into pairs of conceptually similar Darshanas. Sankhya and Yoga seek to free the man through the puriﬁ cation of the mind. Vaisheshika and Nyaya focus on the empirical and logical aspects of philosophy. Mimamsa and Vedanta put emphasis on the return to the Vedas and their concepts are based on the interpretation of the Vedas. These systems were atheistic at the beginning; under the inﬂ uence of the development in India, they later accepted the thought of God, most often under the name Ishvara. They were created parallel to each other and inﬂ uenced each other. A lot of irrational and fantastic elements remained in them. A period of about thousand...
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