4. Vaisheshika, Sankhya and Yoga
Keywords: sensual knowledge, Purusha, Prakrti, Guna, Moksha 4.1 Vaisheshika – An Emphasis on the Empirical Side of Philosophism The name of this Darshana is probably derived from the word Vishesha, which means diff erence, curiosity. Similar to other orthodox systems, its origin dates back to the post-Buddhist period, but the ﬁ rst records come from the 5th to 6th century A.D. The Vaisheshika Sutra is accredited to Kannada and the writing Padarthadharma- sangraha was written by Prashastapada. The classic, later form of this system is not philosophically interesting. The development of thinking can only be reconstructed to a certain degree. The oldest layer of Darshana is created by the phase of natural philosophy. The base is made by the consider- ation of the world being made of eternal elements. Such 40 an attitude is not deﬁ nite yet, it is neither materialis- tic, nor idealistic, but atheist. There are four elements: earth, water, ﬁ re, and air. Each one of them corresponds with a certain sensual quality and sensory organ. Later they added the ﬁ fth element Akasha, which means an empty cosmic space, and they elaborated a theory of how this corresponds with sensory organs. Their under- standing of sensual perception can be illustrated with the example of eyesight. Vaisheshika makes a diff erence between a physical and sensory organs, the physical has an origin in the element of earth, and the sensory organ, has an origin in the ele- ment, to which it belongs. Sensual perception takes place when in contact with...
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