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The Rise and Fall of the Aramaeans in the Ancient Near East, from Their First Appearance until 732 BCE

New Studies on Aram and Israel

Gotthard G. G. Reinhold

In the early nineties, after Reinholds first publication »Die Beziehungen Altisraels zu den aramäischen Staaten in der israelitisch-judäischen Königszeit« an archaeological find came to light with the broken pieces of the early Aramaic written Têl Dan Stela, which has greatly illuminated the portrait of Aram and ancient history of Israel. The author offers a renewed overview to the Aramaean history on the foundation of the forced researches in the last 50 years. This begins with the early testifying of Aram in cuneiform sources of the 3rd/2nd Mill. B.C. from the Mesopotamian and Syrian area and ends with the decline of Aram-Damascus. The Volume incorporates a revised edition of the researches history and two excurses about the newest palaeographic results to the second line of the Bar-Hadad Stela of Aleppo in Syria on the base of precision photographs and computer-enhancements and presents a new transcription and translation of the Têl Dan Stela fragments. These are a certain basis to build on the royal line of sucession in Aram-Damascus and to illuminate their historical background in the Ancient Near East. Reinhold emphasizes, that the results of archaeology could always be adapted or replaced by recent discoveries; but he hopes that the «New Studies on Aram and Israel» will be served as a base for the future research of the Near Eastern Archaeology and History.

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Preface ...................................................................................................7 Foreword ............................................................................................11 1 The Attestation of Aram in the Oldest Written Materials from Syria and Mesopotamia during the 3rd and 2nd Millennia ..........................................................13 2 The Development of Aramaean Tribes during the Second Half of the Second until the Beginning of the First Millennium BCE in the Ancient Near East .....................17 3 Toward the Origin of the Aramaeans in the Hebrew Bible ..27 4 Aram’s Ascent to Power at the End of the 2nd and Beginning of the 1st Millennium BCE until the End of its Rule ............................................................................................33 4.1 Aram’s Development in Northern Syria and Upper Mesopotamian from the 11th to 8th Centuries BCE ...................33 4.2 Aram’s Development in Central and Southern Syria and Its Adversary Israel: Confrontation and Alliance in the First Millennium BCE until the End of Aram- Damascus’ Dominance in 732, According to Biblical and Extrabiblical Sources ........................................................................................38 4.2.1 The Aramaean States in Central and Southern Syria during the Davidic and Solomonic Dynasty ......................... 38 4.2.2 Aram and Israel before and after Qarqar in the Ninth Century BCE ....................................................... 42 4.2.2.1 Before Discovery of the Zakkur Stela from Tell Afis (Hazrak) .......................................................... 45 4.2.2.2 After Discovery of the Zakkur Stele from Tell Afis (Hazrak) .......................................................... 46 4.2.2.3 Subsequent to Discovery of the Melqart /Bar- Hadad Stela ............................................................ 50 4.2.2.4 The Bar- Hadad of the Melqart or Bir-/Bar- Hadad Stela: King of Aram- Damascus or King of Arpad? ................................................................ 55 64.2.2.5 The Books of Kings, Chronology and the Têl Dan Stela Fragments ............................................... 59 4.2.3 The Historical Background of the Elija and Elisha...

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