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Contextual Approaches in Sociology

Edited By Adela Elena Popa, Hasan Arslan, Mehmet Ali Icbay and Tomas Butvilas

Contextual Approaches in Sociology is a collection of essays on a wide range of sociological issues written by researchers from several different institutions. The volume presents applications of grounded theory, social capital, education, social rituals and gender issues. It will appeal to a wide range of academic leadership, including educators, researchers, social students and teachers, who wish to develop personally and professionally. It will also be useful to all those who interact with students and teachers in a sociological context.


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Gender and Entrepreneurship: A Sociological Study On Women Entrepreneurship


Introduction Four production factors determine economic development, including natural resources, capital, labour, and entrepreneurship. According to Hebert and Link (1988), the word entrepreneur was first used by Cantillon, who was a banker in France. Cantillon defined the entrepreneur as someone who engages in exchange for profit and exercises business judgment in the face of uncertainty. After Can- tillon, many economists tried to define the term but no consensus exists on the definition of this phenomenon. Nonetheless, the term could be defined as the process of creating something valuable by devoting the necessary skills, time, and effort, as well as assuming the accompanying financial and sometimes physical and social risks to reap the resulting monetary rewards and personal satisfaction (Ufuk and Özgen, 2001, p. 299). In spite of the lack of a commonly accepted definition of entrepreneurship, there seems to be general agreement among researchers that entrepreneurship is associated with economic development and growth. Society needs more en- trepreneurs and more entrepreneurship (Ahl, 2002, p. 45). Thus, entrepreneur- ship has recently become a key factor of economic development because of its functions in preventing unemployment and enlivening the economy. Thus, entrepreneurship becomes increasingly important. Concurrent with this trend, women entrepreneurship has become an engaging subject. In Turkey, as well as in developed countries, the number of studies about the economic, social, and cultural aspects of women entrepreneurship has been increasing. Women entrepreneurship as a new concept began in the 1970s and has be- come a field investigated by diverse disciplines. Studies...

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