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The Practice of Knowing and Knowing in Practices

Bengt Molander

This book is a philosophical analysis of knowledge in practices, focused on knowing how, tacit knowledge and expert knowledge. Knowing in action is the key concept. It covers understanding, well-functioning routines as well as successful learning processes. It is argued that knowledge-in-action is more basic than propositional or theoretical knowledge. Key notions are knowing as a kind of attentiveness or a way of being in the world, knowing as continued learning, and knowledge as what leads people in the best way. The book is a contribution to the contemporary philosophical discussions about knowing how, tacit knowledge and expert knowledge. At the same time, it is written as an interdisciplinary and case-based introduction to the epistemology of knowing and learning.
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Epilogue: Education and Research for Living Knowledge


Knowledge is kept alive by means of attentiveness and continued learning. This means that learning one’s way into living knowledge involves learning attentiveness and learning how to learn—in action. I shall not be providing any general prescriptions for the way in which education should be organised in terms of form and content. However, the epistemology of knowledge in action put forward in this book will, it is hoped, serve to focus attention on certain vital features of knowledge formation, examples and comparisons in particular.

Here, I shall add a few concluding reflections on scientific2 education and research. These concern higher education at the tertiary level.

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