Edited By Robertas Jucevicius, Jurgita Bruneckiene and Gerd-Bodo von Carlsburg
Billy Fields - Evaluating the Challenge of Conceptualising the Smart City in Urban Planning: Greenway Planning in Texas
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Department of Political Science Texas State University, USA
Evaluating the Challenge of Conceptualising the Smart City in Urban Planning: Greenway Planning in Texas
One of the central goals of urban planning is to shape the form of regions by guiding development towards areas most suitable for growth or redevelopment. Planning policy tools, such as zoning, urban infrastructure guidance, and open space preservation are designed to steer the intensity and pace of development to enhance positive economic, social, and environmental impacts while minimising potential negative effects.
In the 1950s, planners took this broad mandate and began to think of cities as urban systems that could be modelled and reinvented. Planning, it was thought, could not only steer development, but also perfect it through rational application of transportation and housing planning systems. By the 1960s, modernist planners began to use new computer tools to model these systems and apply the outputs as urban policy (Townshend, 2013). The result of this first wave of cybernetic urban planning was unsuccessful due to the inherent complexity of urban systems and underlying political differences about the goals of urban policy (Goodspeed, 2015).
In place of understanding cities as closed systems that could be perfected, planners moved towards understanding cities as complex “wicked problems.” Rittel and Webber (1973) argue that this wicked problem framework forces planners to work with “with open systems” that create an “ill-defined” set of problems...
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