Selected Figures of Scholastic Tradition I
1. Boundaries and Concept of Middle Ages and its Philosophical Thinking
1. Boundaries and Concepts of the Middle Ages and its Philosophical Thinking
Claudio Leonardi says that the “Middle Ages represent a historic period, in which the identity, which was denied and destroyed by the modern world and which however is now being discovered again in its beauty, was established. It is a period in which dialogue and therefore also a conflict between faith and intellect, church and empire and between culture based in God and culture based in man, were possible. It is a living space in which mystique and philosophy could exist side by side on a historic level. It is world which is lost today and which we can get hold of again only by intellectual appropriation” (Středověká Latinská Literatura, p. 24).
To understand the specificity of certain period and conceive its essence, it is undoubtedly desirable to distin ← 7 | 8 → guish it from the times which preceded and follow it. This belief lies behind our effort to periodise time. This effort, which no longer has theological and eschatological characteristics, can be traced back to the 14th and 15th centuries. It was during this period when the epoch of the Middle Ages was defined for the first time. Therefore, in the sense of more modern periodization, the Middle Ages were defined as the first epoch.
Medieval scholars restricted the term “ancient times” or “antiquity” to the epoch of Greek and Roman erudition, which they tried to continue. The term “antiquity...
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