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Selected Problems of Metaphysics and Ontology


Renáta Kišoňová

The presented text offers a basic overview of the terms and topics of the very wide philosophical discipline called metaphysics. The text includes, besides an overview of individual problems, reflections to consider and recommended literature. Readers will become familiar with the basic terms (metaphysics, ontology, existence, being), with the metaphysics of archaic nations, Parmenides’s approach to understand being as The One, the understanding of time and events of the Greeks, the problem of categories according to Aristotle and Kant, the problem of intuition and fundamental ontology.
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This university textbook dealt with the individual problems concerning the history of metaphysics and ontology. Of course, this topic has not been fully covered. There was no space left for an analysis of Aristotelian hylemorphism and its subsequent completion in the works of Thomas Aquinas. Another attractive topic, which unfortunately was not given space in this university textbook, would also be existence and its understanding according to K. Jaspers, J.P. Sartre or A. Camus. There are plenty of problems and concepts which were not discussed so let them be “a thrown down gauntlet” for the reader to study them using the recommended literature. The text is supposed to function as a guideline for orientation in the topic and literature which deal with the particular authors and questions. In closing, there is a list of cho ← 101 | 102 → sen recommended literature concerning the systematic and historical point of view of metaphysics:

Systematic point of view

Burkhardt, H., Smith, B.: Handbook of Metaphysics and Ontology, I-II, 1991, Analytica Philosophia Verlag, Mníchov.

Hamlyn, D.W.: Metaphysics, 1984, Cambridge University Press.

Hasker, W.: Metaphysics, InterVarsity Press, 1983.

Inwagen van P.: Ontology, Identity and Modality: Essays in Metaphysics, Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Loux, M.J.: Metaphysics: A Contemporary Introduction, Psychology Press, 2002.

Poli, R., Seibt, J.: Theory and Applications of Ontology: Philosophical Perspectives, Springer Science & Business Media, 2010.

Strawson, P.F.: Individuals. An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics, London,...

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