I. Who am I?
I Who am “I”?
Keywords: first person, third person, psychiatry, neuroscience, intrasubjective content
The study of the nature of the self, similarly, as in the case of the mind and consciousness, is closely linked with the problem of the complementarity of used methods. This is due to the fact that different sciences start from not only different, but also opposing perspectives, namely the first-person perspective, second-person perspective and third-person perspective. The different perspectives are characterised according to their epistemic limitations and abilities. Furthermore, these perspectives lead to characteristic implications concerning theories of the self in the different sciences. The self and self-consciousness have always been important problems in philosophy, especially dealt with in the philosophy of the mind.
However, recently philosophy of the mind often refers to Descartes’ theory as its beginning. His special ← 11 | 12 → methodology and theses have deeply influenced many of his successors. Descartes begins with our reflective consciousness, which questions anything. This results in a fundamental doubt towards everything except the fact that we think or doubt, e.g. the mind does not doubt its own existence. Descartes formulates this in his famous statement: “I think, therefore I am” (cogito ergo sum). His central thesis contains the premise of the epistemic privilege of judgements about our minds, our consciousness and our self-consciousness. This means that our own consciousness is better accessible to us than anything outside of it, which is normally called the external world. As Descartes puts it: “For it...
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