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Academic Writing

Selected Topics in Writing an Academic Paper

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Silvia Gáliková

The textbook concentrates on selected topics and problematic aspects in preparing a cohesive and well-organised academic paper, such as: the relation between thinking and writing, establishing arguments, using logic and appropriate language in argumentative writing. The author considers writing as thinking made visible, as thinking in slow motion, a process whereby we can inspect and reflect on what we are thinking about. Writing doesn’t simply convey thought, it also forges it. It is a two-way street, both expressing and generating ideas.
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III. Rhetoric and writing

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III Rhetoric and writing

Keywords: ethos, pathos, logos, author, audience

As already stated in previous chapters, thoughts, spoken and written language are closely intertwined. In order to present a well-organised written work, scholars recommend analysing rhetorical situations – this term refers to any set of circumstances that involves at least one person using some sort of communication to modify the perspective of at least one other person. First of all, it is necessary to explain the meaning of the word “rhetoric”. In brief, “rhetoric” is any communication used to modify the perspectives of others. Furthermore, knowledge and the use of rhetoric can help in understanding how people write more convincingly.

The ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle, strongly influenced how people have traditionally viewed rhetoric. Aristotle defined rhetoric as “an ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion” ← 29 | 30 → (Aristotle Rhetoric I.1.2). Aristotle’s definition of rhetoric has been reduced in many situations to mean simply “persuasion”. This approach to rhetoric has led to a long tradition of people associating rhetoric with politicians, lawyers, or other occupations noted for persuasive speaking. However, over the last century, the academic definition and use of “rhetoric” has evolved to include any situation in which people consciously communicate with each other. Individual people tend to perceive and understand just about everything differently from one another. This expanded perception has led a number of more contemporary rhetorical philosophers to suggest that rhetoric deals with more than just persuasion....

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