Prolegomena to the Study of Modern Philosophy
The present work does not attempt to provide a detailed history of modern philosophy or an exhaustive interpretation and analysis of the ideas and works of individual philosophers and philosophies. There are sufficient classic works like these in the international (F. Copleston, Cambridge Companion to Philosophy, Oxford, Routledge, Blackwell) as well as domestic linguistic environment (Dějiny filosofie (The History of Philosophy), OIKOYMENH – Vol. 13). The aim of the present text is rather to focus on briefly introducing the issue – to introduce the reader to the basic problematic issues of modern philosophy, the concepts and their solutions, the fundamental theories and ideas, and the definitions of key notions, ideas, and approaches. Therefore, this is not a typical history-philosophy thesis, but rather an outline of char ← 7 | 8 → acteristics of the thinking in the period – by thematising the main topics of modern-day thinking.
If we discuss the historical approach to philosophy in the modern era, from the beginning we need to point out that defining the modern period is itself associated with a number of challenges concerning delineation. Firstly, the modern period has not yet been defined by an historical event that has been generally accepted as the beginning or end of the period. To this day, historians continue to argue if such an initial milestone exists, and if so, which historical event it is (the discovery of America in 1492, Germany in 1517 (Luther’s theses), the reformation in England in 1485, the reformation in France in 1515, in...
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