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Prolegomena to the Study of Modern Philosophy



This book is divided into nine chapters trying to draw attention to the various aspects of the understanding of God, to the question of the individual, the ideal state arrangement, and the question of freedom (free will) as well as of history. Special attention is paid to the issue of cognition, the question of reason and sense, as well as language and the issue of a system in philosophy. The chapters are arranged to show the historical characteristics of the issues with an introduction of the key approach and ideas with references.
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Modern Philosophy as a Philosophy of Large Systems


Keywords: mathematisation, harmony, repetition, systematisation, rationalisation

Modern philosophy is primarily the philosophy of large systems. One of the key reasons we find systematicness and grandiosely, internally and formally structured systems in this period, is the belief that reality is constructed on the basis of simple principles, which can be grasped through reason. Thus, if a philosopher should portray reality with its legitimate and logically identifiable structure, his/her philosophy must also be systematic and structured.

Since the time of Bacon there has been an obvious desire and intellectual pursuit of describing the world in a systematic manner. Contrary to Bruno (see the logic and systematicness of his Ars memoriae – Démuth, 2000) and the Neoplatonists, who believed in the hierarchic nature of the world as well as the possibility of the visibility of God’s ideas, Bacon assumed that the laws ← 103 | 104 → of the world could be revealed via systematic research. He also subdued his concept of Instauratio magna – the great restoration of sciences to this; although he failed to implement his project satisfactorily (he implemented only the Novum Organon, which included a major constructive part, whereas the destructive part deals with the obstacles of scientific knowledge being the pursuit of a new methodology – an experimental “interrogation” of nature and a tabular method of analysis of empirical data). It is obvious, however, that he believed in the necessity of a systematic and hierarchical exploration of the world (Solomon’s House) and in the possibility of knowing its forms....

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