Power and Beyond
2. Theoretical Framework
2.1.1 Literature Review
In existing studies in and of different countries, Euroscepticism is mainly analysed in terms of public opinion8 (Niedermayer 1995; Eichenberg and Dalton 1993, 2007; Hooghe 2007; Hooghe and Marks 2004) or in terms of party politics (Taggart 1998, Hooghe et al. 2004, Kopecky and Mudde 2002, Marks and Wilson 2000, Marks et al. 2002, Ray 1999, Szczerbiak and Taggart 2008a and 2008b). Gifford (2008), Hansen and Waever (2002), Ichijo and Spohn (2005), and Diez Medrano (2003) analysed the link between national identity and collective understandings of Europe. Marks and Steenbergen’s book (2004) and research done by Della Porta (2006) focus on social movements and fill a gap in the literature regarding perceptions of the EU within civil society. Chamorel (2006) provides an important contribution to the debate by distinguishing between Euroscepticism and anti-Europeanism by undertaking a case study in the United States.
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