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Various Faces of Animal Metaphor in English and Polish

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Robert Kiełtyka

This book is dedicated to the issue of animal metaphor together with its intricacies and internal complexity. Its main objective is to present a unified picture of the role animal terms have played in the shape of English and other natural languages. The author addresses such aspects of animal metaphor as the problem of animal names used as surnames, so-called verbal and adjectival zoosemy, or the use of names of animal body parts with reference to people. The cognitively-oriented analysis is carried out in terms of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, which is capable of accounting for semantic change in a panchronic perspective. The results show that virtually any facet of humanity, which is beyond the norm, may be viewed, perceived, conceived of and expressed in animal terms.
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Chapter 3: Towards Various Mechanisms of Zoosemy-based Transfers

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Chapter 3 Towards Various Mechanisms of Zoosemy-based Transfers

3.0 Introduction

The major objective to be pursued in this chapter is to cast further light on the intricacies of zoosemic metaphorics in English and in Polish. The structure of the text that follows is easily definable. The first part examines a subtype of zoosemy where lexical items that serve to name animal body parts undergo the processes of metaphorisation and metonimisation and are used either with reference to human beings or actions typically performed by human beings. This subtype of zoosemy will be interpreted as the interface between the general metaphorical schema that may be formulated as <(PART OF) HUMAN BEING/ACTION PERFORMED BY HUMAN BEING IS (PERCEIVED AS) (PART OF) ANIMAL> and the metonymic mapping that may be formalized as (PART OF) HUMAN BEING FOR ACTION PERFORMED BY HUMAN BEING. The remaining sections of this chapter address such idiosyncrasies of animal metaphor as the relation between zoosemy and foodsemy, habitat-conditioned zoosemy, the question of reversed zoosemy and the broadly understood semantic derogation of animal-specific vocabulary items.

3.1 Zoosemy as Metaphor-Metonymy Interaction: An Overview

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