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The Social Side of Tourism: The Interface between Tourism, Society, and the Environment

Answers to Global Questions from the International Competence Network of Tourism Research and Education (ICNT)


Michael Lück, Jan Velvin and Bernd Eisenstein

The International Competence Network of Tourism Research and Education (ICNT) covers various areas of research. ICNT’s third book offers insights of tourism experts with a wide range of interest and expertise on the way tourism is understood and worked in different countries around the world. The volume analyses the interface between the social, the natural, and the economic environments and focuses on an increase of competitive advantages and local value creation. This includes the social and cultural perspectives of host communities and tourists.
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Multifunctionality, tourism and protected areas (Velvin, Bjørnstad)


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Jan Velvin and Kristian Bjørnstad

Multifunctionality, Tourism and Protected Areas

1. Introduction

Over the last few decades rural areas in Europe have faced several challenges. The use of rural areas for the production of food and fibers is still important in terms of the area used, however, in terms of employment and in percentage of the economy, the overall trend is that the productive function of rural areas has lost much of its previous dominant position. At the same time, there are indications of rural land users and other stakeholders assigning a higher value to the consumption, largely through tourism, and the heritage of rural areas. Multifunctionality is now a key term in relation to this transition and the driving forces behind it has been suggested as being related to agricultural overcapacity, the emergence of market-driven amenity uses and a growing societal awareness of sustainability and preservation issues (Holmes, 2006). In Norway, this is visible through an increased focus on nature-based tourism in rural areas and in the planning and implementation of new protected areas (Direktoratet for Naturforvaltning, 2006).

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