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Higher Education Reform: Looking Back – Looking Forward

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Edited By Pavel Zgaga, Ulrich Teichler, Hans G. Schuetze and Andrä Wolter

The central focus of this book is the concept of higher education reform in the light of an international and global comparative perspective. After decades of far-reaching reform, higher education around the world has profoundly changed and now has to face the challenges of the present. This volume takes a close look at these changes, the drivers of change, their effects and possible future scenarios. In their contributions the authors discuss a variety of basic concepts: learning and teaching in higher education; financing and quality assurance; governance change; massification vs. equity and equality; internationalization and mobility, the implementation of lifelong structures in higher education.
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Trends in Chinese Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges

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Growth in the world’s largest higher education market is often masked by the tremendous parallel growth in China’s economy over the past two decades. National economic prowess has underpinned much of China’s success in all social sectors, including in the development of higher education. This trend is projected to continue well into the future as China’s robust economy is fueling an unprecedented boom in higher education. While its national GDP is on target to become the world’s largest by 2030, China’s higher education enrollments have already surpassed all other countries with current enrollments at 30 million in 2010 compared with about 20 million in the United States and 17 million in India (U.S. Census Bureau 2012, University Grants Commission 2012).

Ethnic minority students had roughly the same overall percentage of total enrollments in the past 30 years, comprising 6.64 percent of total enrollments in 2010, 5.71 percent in 2000, and 6.9 percent in 1991 (DP&C 1991, DD&P 2001, 2011). The number of ethnic nationality higher education institutions increased at modest rate over the past 30 years with enrollments following suit. The number of international enrollments also increased by 410 percent from 2000 to 2010, with 130,637 international students attending Chinese higher education institutions (HEIs) in 2010, compared to 74,323 in 2005 and 25,636 in 2000 (DD&P 2001, 2006, 2011).

Table 1. Enrollments and higher education institutional trends in China, 1949-2010



*Figures include both...

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