Eine politisch-historische Bilanz
The idea to establish an international criminal court already emerged in the 1940s after the Nuremberg Trials; however, the Cold War prevented its implementation. It became more realistic when the former Allies against Hitler resumed their cooperation after the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989.
In this context the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) was established on 8 November 1994 by Resolution 955 of the United Nations Security Council “for the sole purpose of prosecuting persons responsible for genocide and other serious violations of International Humanitarian Law committed in the territory of Rwanda and Rwandan citizens responsible for genocide and other such violations committed in the territory of neighbouring States, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994.”
In proposing the establishment of the ICTR, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, the then Secretary General of the United Nations, sought to pursue all crimes falling under the mandate of Resolution 955. This was in opposition to the hidden agenda of certain permanent members of the Security Council from the Western hemisphere, who aimed, to pursue only crimes committed against the Tutsi population in 1994, in the interest of the newly established authorities in Kigali.
Upon Boutros-Ghali’s proposition the UN Security Council decided on 22 February 1995 that the ICTR “shall have its seat at Arusha” in northern Tanzania.