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Orient im Okzident – Okzident im Orient

West-östliche Begegnungen in Sprache und Kultur, Literatur und Wissenschaft

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Edited By Ernest W.B. Hess-Lüttich and Yoshito Takahashi

Die programmatische Gegenüberstellung von Orient und Okzident spielt seit der «Entdeckung des Ostens» im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert in der Ideengeschichte Europas eine große Rolle. Der Band sucht Erscheinungsformen der «Repräsentation» von Orient und Okzident, wie sie sich in Sprache, Literatur, Medien, Technik und Umwelt äußern, aus mehreren Perspektiven xenologisch zu erschließen. Er vereint Ansätze zur philosophischen Grundlegung interkultureller Ost-West-Forschung sowie der kultur- und literarhistorischen Aufarbeitung wechselseitig fruchtbarer Inspiration, z. B. in der Weimarer Klassik, im Einfluss «östlichen» Denkens auf die Literatur des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, aber auch in der Garten- und Landschaftsarchitektur sowie der Wissenschaftskommunikation im Zeichen neuer ökologischer Herausforderungen.
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Sprachknaben: Die Schulen der Dragomanen – Mittler zwischen Orient und Okzident: Turgut Gümüşoğlu (Universtität İstanbul)

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Turgut Gümüşoğlu (Universtität İstanbul)

Dragoman: The real bridge between Orient and Occident. As far as it conserns the debate on orient and occident, the dragomans of the time were the real multicultural and multilingual transmitters. Knowledge exchange between orient and occident, and orientalist language-knowledge-acquisition helped interpreting and translation studies to occur as a new discipline. The European interest in the East is not restricted only to the scientific deals but also to the state interests and power relations. In the middle of the 18th century, on behalf of Maria Theresia the “Kaiserlich-Königliche Akademie für orientalische Sprachen” was founded. This was followed by other foundations of institutions such as the “École Spéciale des Langues Orientales”. With the aid of dragomans these institutions helped to create a bridge between East and West. Thanks to these developments and to lots of translations done by dragomans, such as the translation of Quran, Hafiz, Al Rumi etc., the East slowly began to be recognised by the West. These approaches aimed different targets: While Goethe’s Diwan was trying to tell the oriental pure sophisticated love, other orientalists on the other hand were trying to exploit the East. Finally, the concept of orientalism is not denotative, today it is highly controversial, for example Said‘s works claimed that the term of orientalism is fictional not innocent. To sum up, both the debate of orientalism and the contributions of dragomans are handled in detail in this study.

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