Theory and research- Current Problems
Edited By Hanna Liberska and Marzanna Farnicka
Patterns of Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression. A Cross-national Study on Sex Difference
This study was to examine the sex differences in three patterns of readiness for interpersonal aggression in the four following countries: Italy, Poland, Spain and the USA. Readiness for aggression is a set of psychological processes that regulate aggressive manifestation. Three patterns of readiness are distinguished: emotional-impulsive readiness, associated with proneness to anger and lack of ability of emotional control (EIR); habitual-cognitive readiness, based on specific habits, scripts and beliefs about the usefulness of aggression (HCR); and personality-immanent readiness, related to a stable need to hurt others as a source of satisfaction (PIR). The data were collected from 1,277 high school graduates and students aged 18 to 26, including 574 males and 704 females. The results showed that females, regardless of cultural settings, exhibited higher levels of emotional-impulsive readiness for aggression than males, whereas males across the four countries scored higher than females on habitual-cognitive and personality-immanent readiness. The sex differences in readiness for aggression were explained with regard to gender stereotype, particularly with respect to the communal orientation predominantly internalized by females and agentic orientation represented by males.
Research on aggressive behavior has a long tradition, and at least two different dimensions of such behavior have been identified. The first one refers to the form of aggressive manifestation. In this approach physical, verbal and indirect forms of aggression are distinguished. Studies on forms of aggression have been descriptive and comparative in nature, e.g., researchers focused on individual and cross-national characteristics that...
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