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Aggression as a Challenge

Theory and research- Current Problems

Edited By Hanna Liberska and Marzanna Farnicka

We live in a world of phenomena created by the human mind and by human experience, namely conflict, aggression, aggressiveness and violence. These phenomena are viewed as constructs of the mind, types of behaviour, particular experiences and emotional states, specific social interactions or even historical and political categories such as social movements, wars, angry social protests etc. The study explores the notions of aggression and violence and from an individual and a social perspective analyses their determinants in various environments in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. It is an attempt to join the global discussion on reaction conditions and key points that are connected with the risk of pathologization of the personality and its behaviour.
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Patterns of Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression. A Cross-national Study on Sex Difference

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Introduction

This study was to examine the sex differences in three patterns of readiness for interpersonal aggression in the four following countries: Italy, Poland, Spain and the USA. Readiness for aggression is a set of psychological processes that regulate aggressive manifestation. Three patterns of readiness are distinguished: emotional-impulsive readiness, associated with proneness to anger and lack of ability of emotional control (EIR); habitual-cognitive readiness, based on specific habits, scripts and beliefs about the usefulness of aggression (HCR); and personality-immanent readiness, related to a stable need to hurt others as a source of satisfaction (PIR). The data were collected from 1,277 high school graduates and students aged 18 to 26, including 574 males and 704 females. The results showed that females, regardless of cultural settings, exhibited higher levels of emotional-impulsive readiness for aggression than males, whereas males across the four countries scored higher than females on habitual-cognitive and personality-immanent readiness. The sex differences in readiness for aggression were explained with regard to gender stereotype, particularly with respect to the communal orientation predominantly internalized by females and agentic orientation represented by males.

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