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Aggression as a Challenge

Theory and research- Current Problems

Hanna Liberska and Marzanna Farnicka

We live in a world of phenomena created by the human mind and by human experience, namely conflict, aggression, aggressiveness and violence. These phenomena are viewed as constructs of the mind, types of behaviour, particular experiences and emotional states, specific social interactions or even historical and political categories such as social movements, wars, angry social protests etc. The study explores the notions of aggression and violence and from an individual and a social perspective analyses their determinants in various environments in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. It is an attempt to join the global discussion on reaction conditions and key points that are connected with the risk of pathologization of the personality and its behaviour.
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Family Correlates of Adolescents’ Readiness to Assume the Role of Aggressor or Victim



The aggressive behaviour of children and adolescents and the various forms of its manifestion have long been a problem. Increasingly often, aggression can be spotted in younger children, and problem behaviour has tended to become more and more violent and unpredictable. As civilizational changes occur, traditional forms of aggression (verbal, physical, sexual, psychological) are accompanied by new forms, such as cyber-aggression or cyber-bullying (Tedeschi, Felson, 1994). The development and persistence of aggressive behaviour of children and teenagers stem from many factors. In traditional research, investigation of the causes of aggression used to concentrate on the child and his or her temperament. Nowadays, developmental psychopathology has become more often the key perspective of understanding the problem behaviour of children, adolescents and adults (Rutter, Duggal, Weinfeld, 2000). Theoretical models of developmental psychopathology, including those connected with the origin of aggressive behaviour, are multi-factorial. The sources of aggression are looked for in disturbances of developmental processes in the biological, psychological and also the social spheres (Allen, Aber, Leadbeater, 1990; Amberson, 1978; Bandura, Walters, 1968; Krahe, 2006; Borecka-Biernat, 2013). Relevant literature points to the significance of risk factors and protective factors (from the area of genetics, hormonal processes, intellectual functioning and the social environment of children and adolescents) that are connected with aggressive behaviour. At the same time, other significant variables are listed, such as self-esteem, level of self-control, identity style, sex, family situation, manner in which parental roles are performed (cf. inter alia Berzonsky, 2009; Bookwala, Zdaniuk, 1998;...

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