Ukraine’s complex transition
Edited By Klaus Bachmann and Igor Lyubashenko
Ukraine within the Soviet Union
The Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic (henceforth, SSR) was one of the founders of the Soviet Union in 1922. Ukrainian historian Ivan Lysiak-Rudnytsky, who was at the time working in the US, considered the Ukrainian SSR to be a “compromise between Ukrainian nationalism and Russian centralism (…) Russia retained political control over Ukraine and, by virtue of that, the position of the paramount power in Eastern Europe. Ukraine preserved, from the shipwreck of her greater hopes, the status of a nation (denied to her by the tsarist regime) and a token recognition of her statehood in the form of the Ukrainian SSR”.1 After the national renaissance in the twenties, the Great Famine in the thirties, the Stalinist terror and the atrocities of World War II, the post-war “normalcy” promoted by Stalin’s successors meant for Ukraine “an impressive industrial development, urbanisation and the development of a fully modern society – but also tight political control from Moscow and gradual marginalisation of Ukrainian culture.”2
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